As we know that before independence Pakistan was part of India. Muslim league which was founded in 1906, passed a Pakistan resolution in March 1940 for a separate nation for Muslim. Pakistan shares about 3323 km long border which runs along four Indian states. India and Pakistan have many things in common such as culture, language, history etc..
Under Indian independence act the princely states were allowed to join either india or Pakistan or eithre remain independent. Thus there were more than 500+ princely states who agrred to join India under the leadership of sardar vallabh bhai patel and V. P. Menon. But the rulers of some states such as Junagarh , Kashmir and Hyderabad who want to remain sovereign or either accede to Pakistan.
Junagarh is a hindu majority state (in south Gujarat) ruled by a muslim ruler. The ruler Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III want ot secede to Pakistan however the people of Junagarh and the dewan of Junagarh wish to remain with India. Following clashes with indian troops the Nawab fled to Pakistan leaving behind open treasury. Thus plebiscite was conducted in February 1948, which was in favour of people of the state to remain integral part of India. This is how Junagarh became part of independent India.
Hyderabad was a state in the south central part of India ruled by the nizam Mir Sir Osman Ali Khan, a muslim ruler over hindu majority population, choose to remain independent and maintain his own irregular army. In November 1948 he signed a standstill agreement with India and agree to all previous agreements except for stationing indian army within his territory .however with the rise of militancy India deemed it necessary to station army do in response of militancy Indian army launched ‘Operation POLO’ in September 1948 and compel the nizam to surrender and sign instrument of accession to join India.
JAMMU AND KASHMIR
At the time of independence the Maharaja of Jammu ad Kashmir Hare Singh want to make a sovereign state and send a standstill agreement to both Pakistan and India, pending final decision to the state itself. However Pakistan broke the agreement by sponsoring militant tribal attack on J&K on October 1947. Pashtun invaders took control over large area of J&K and in response Hari Singh for help from India. India in response assured help on condition that he should sign the instrument of accession . The maharaja Hari Singh sign the instrument of accession on 26 October 1947 in Srinagar.
After signing the instrument of accession indian army successfully drove out Pakistan sponsored tribal militants however some area of the state came under Pakistan control which India claims and is called as Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK)
To resolve the Kashmir issue India referred the dispute to united Nation Security Council on 1st jan1948. UNSC on 21 April 1948 passed a resolution 47 which is as follow- Pakistan is the aggressor state and has to vacate all the occupied territory by handing over to India . India in response has to remove all the forces except enough to maintain law and order and to conduct Plebiscite. Till now there is no referendum as Pakistan has not compiled to the UN resolution as it not binding resolution.
Since independence Kashmir was enjoying a special status under article 370 of the constitution of India. On 5 August 2019 a presidential order was passed and the special status of the state was abrogated.
- India- Pakistan war of 1965: Pakistan in the intention to grab forced forcefully the area of J&K launched a military operation Gibraltar . In response India successfully defeat the Pakistan army. The war ended with UN innervation with both sides moving back to pre war position. Tashkent Agreement was finalised in which both the countries give up territorial claims and withdraw their armies from the disputed region.
- India – Pakistan war of 1971: as we know that in partition of India , Pakistan is divided into East Pakistan(today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan). East Pakistan always complaint for less attention from west Pakistan dominating government for less development . there was also discontent among east Pakistan for adopting Urdu as an official language. Just before the was the election was won by East Pakistan leader still he was not given the power which serves as fuel. Since Pakistan think that the movement is backed by India so to contain the movement Pakistan started Operation Changiz Khan , when 11 Indian airbases were attacked by Pakistan on 3rd Dec 1971, leading to India’s entry into war of independence of |East Pakistan on the side of Bengalis. The war just lasted for 13 days, and came to an end when Eastern Command of the Pakistan armed forces signed the instrument of surrender on 26th Dec 1971 in Dhaka, marking the liberation of Bangladeshi from Pakistan. For India it is a win-win situation since Pakistan at the time of war has full suppot of US. Pakistan have signed military pact CENTO and SEATO with US. United states has its own vested interests to support Pakistan to contain Russia’s influence. India has almost 90,000 prisoners of war. Shimla agreement of 1972 signed between Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Pakistan. According to the agreement both sides would respect the ceasefire line of 17th Dec 1971, as being the new ‘Line of Control’ and peaceful resolution on all issues through direct bilateral talk.
- Kargil war of 1999: After conducting nuclear test by both the nations there was very tense atmosphere so to diffuse the situation both countries signed the Lahore declaration in February 1999, promising to provide peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmir conflict. As we were taking steps to discuss the tension but Pakistan infiltrated into Indian controlled section of Kashmir. As soon as we discover the infiltration we respond bravely and push back the Pakistani army. Atal Bihari Vajpayee government are up an enquiry into its causes and to analyze perceived Indian intelligence failures. The committee’s final report, also known as the ‘Subrahmaniyam Report which led to a large scale restructuring of Indian intelligence.
- Sir Creek: it is a 96 km long estuary in between Gujarat state and Sindh province. The disputes arises with the two contradictory provisions in the 1914 verdict of the Bombay government, make India and Pakistan Contender on the same issue. Paragraph nine of these verdicts states that the boundary between Kutch and Sindh lies to the east of the creek which effectively implied that the Creek belonged to send and therefore to Pakistan. On the other hand paragraph 10 states that since Sir Creek is navigable most of the year thus according to international law and the Thalweig principal a boundary can only be fixed in the middle of the navigate channel, which mean that it has to be divided between Sindh and Kutch and thereby India and Pakistan. this is the basis of India’s claim red line which is also bolstered buy a map dating back to 1925.
- Siachin glacier : The ceasefire agreement along the ; line of control is demarcated upto the grid reference NJ 9842 which fall south of siachin glacier. In 1972 Shimla agreement mentioned the boundary after this point to extend “to the north” which is not exactly demarcated. India and Pakistan sides have interpreted the phrase “north of the glacier” very differently. Pakistan claims “north of the glacier means from point NJ 9842 to straight karakoram pass on the sino-india border. However India insists that the line should proceed from NJ 9842 along the Saltaro range to the border with China. Between these two substantial interpretation there lies a substantial amount of area which both the countries claim. Since 1978 Indian army is stationed at the world highest battling ground at siachin glacier.
- Pulwama attack India by the years have strongly condemned the Pakistan sponsored terrorism. After Pulwama attack India abridges the title of ‘most favoured nation’, andsuspend the trade among two countries.
- Pakistan claiming whole union territory of J&K and Junagarh district of gujarat: India strongly condemned the Pakistan decision and states that this untenable claims have neither legal validity nor international credibility. This represent Pakistan rediculus behaviour.