In simple words, International Relations is a policy followed by the government in its national interest. The important factors which shape foreign policy may be historical or cultural, political, economic, or geographical. There is no thumb rule for foreign policy, it is up to the government of that particular state what is good for their country’s citizens.

Today in this globalized world it is impossible for any single country to sustain its demand or requirement within its geographical limit. Thus every country is interdependent in some other country.

Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy and International Relations

On the basis of India’s foreign policy it can be divided into following categories:


The major factors which molded our foreign policy in this era are guided by the legacy of the national movement against colonization, famous personalities such as Mahatma Gandhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru, and other major events such as the post-world war scenario, etc..

The policy in this era is popularly known as nehruvian policy.


After the setback, India China War in 1962 Nehru faced criticism at home. So the aftermath of India – China war and  India -Pakistan war in 1965 India committed for modernization of the Indian army with ten million armies and ten new mountain divisions for high altitude warfare.

In the era of cold war India remained non-aligned.

3. 1991 and after:

After the end of cold war era and disintegration of USSR, India

in 1991 was facing a balance of payment crisis as a consequence of the first gulf war in 1991. So India to avail loan from IMF goes for LPG reforms.

For neighborhood India’s foreign policy / International Relations was based on GUJRAL DOCTRINE of 1996 which are as follow:

  • With India must not ask for reciprocity instead it should give all that it can In good faith and trust
  • the southeast nation must respect each other’s territorial integrity
  • The dispute within the nation should be dealt with bilaterally.
  • South Asian nations should not allow using their territory against any other neighboring nation.
  • No interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

The multilateral grouping evolved against terrorism, illegal trafficking, a unipolar world, and climate change which are some core issues nowadays in India’s foreign policy.


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